Molecular Imaging Instrumentation Laboratory  

Modeling, Computation, and Simulations of PET Physics, Components, Systems, and Phantom/Patient Studies

BlenderTorso Monte Carlo simulations of positron and photon propagation in simulated tissues and in the detector materials help to guide new PET system design, provide data to develop and test novel signal processing algorithms, and assess potential image quality and quantification improvements of new and existing hardware and software. However, Monte Carlo simulations of PET systems are typically computationally expensive and require a large CPU cluster to increase computational efficiency. To address this issue, we have developed an accelerated PET simulator that borrows strategies, such as ray tracing, from the field of computer graphics to accelerate certain operations that are key to accelerated, yet accurate modeling of photon propagation. In addition, we are working on modifying the most computationally demanding sub-routines of the simulation to the GPU for further acceleration without compromising accuracy.

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    Author Title Year Jour./Proc./Book
    Arbab-Zadeh; Russo, R.J.; Bhargava, V.; Levin, C.S.; Jani, S.K.; Lucisano, J. & Teirstein, P.S. Centered Versus Non-Centered Source For Intracoronary Artery Radiation Therapy: A Model Based on the Scripps Trial 2002 American Heart Journal
    Vol. 143-2, pp. 342-8  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arbab-Zadeh2002,
      author = {Arbab-Zadeh and R. J. Russo and V. Bhargava and C. S. Levin and S. K. Jani and J. Lucisano and P. S. Teirstein},
      title = {Centered Versus Non-Centered Source For Intracoronary Artery Radiation Therapy: A Model Based on the Scripps Trial},
      journal = {American Heart Journal},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {143-2},
      pages = {342-8}
    }
    					
    Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. A Method to Include Single Photon Events in Image Reconstruction for a 1 mm Resolution PET System 2006 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, pp. 1740-1745  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Chinn2006,
      author = {G. Chinn and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {A Method to Include Single Photon Events in Image Reconstruction for a 1 mm Resolution PET System},
      booktitle = {2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {1740-1745}
    }
    					
    Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. A Method to Include Single Photon Events in Image Reconstruction for a 1 mm Resolution PET System Built with Advanced 3-D Positioning Detectors 2006 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, pp. 1746-1761  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Chinn2006a,
      author = {G. Chinn and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {A Method to Include Single Photon Events in Image Reconstruction for a 1 mm Resolution PET System Built with Advanced 3-D Positioning Detectors},
      booktitle = {2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {1746-1761}
    }
    					
    Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. Comparing Geometries for a PET System with 3D Photon Positioning Capability 2005 2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III, pp. 1709-1712  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Chinn2005,
      author = {G. Chinn and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Comparing Geometries for a PET System with 3D Photon Positioning Capability},
      booktitle = {2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {1709-1712}
    }
    					
    Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. A Method to Reject Random Coincidences and Extract True from Multiple Coincidences in PET using 3-D Detectors 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 5249-5254  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Chinn2008,
      author = {G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {A Method to Reject Random Coincidences and Extract True from Multiple Coincidences in PET using 3-D Detectors},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {5249-5254}
    }
    					
    Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. PET Image Reconstruction with a Bayesian Projector for Multi-Electronic Collimation Schemes 2007 Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 2799-2802  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Chinn2007,
      author = {G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {PET Image Reconstruction with a Bayesian Projector for Multi-Electronic Collimation Schemes},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {2799-2802}
    }
    					
    Dhanasopon, A.P.; Levin, C.S.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Olcott, P.D. & Habte, F. Scintillation Crystal Design Features for a Miniature Gamma-Ray Camera 2005 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 52, pp. 1439-1446  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dhanasopon2005,
      author = {A. P. Dhanasopon and C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray and P. D. Olcott and F. Habte},
      title = {Scintillation Crystal Design Features for a Miniature Gamma-Ray Camera},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {52},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1439-1446}
    }
    					
    Dhanasopon, P.; Levin, C.S.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Olcott, P.D. & Habte, F. Scintillation Crystal Design Features for a Miniature Gamma-Ray Camera 2003 2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III, pp. 199-205  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Dhanasopon2003,
      author = {P. Dhanasopon and C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray and P. D. Olcott and F. Habte},
      title = {Scintillation Crystal Design Features for a Miniature Gamma-Ray Camera},
      booktitle = {2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {199-205}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Incident Photon Direction Calculation Using Bayesian Estimation for High Energy Photon Detector Systems with 3D Positioning Capability 2006 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, pp. 208-210  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Foudray2006c,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Incident Photon Direction Calculation Using Bayesian Estimation for High Energy Photon Detector Systems with 3D Positioning Capability},
      booktitle = {2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {208-210}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Component Based Normalization for PET Systems with Depth of Interaction Measurement Capability 2005 2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, IV, pp. 2108-2111  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Foudray2005,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Component Based Normalization for PET Systems with Depth of Interaction Measurement Capability},
      booktitle = {2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, IV},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {2108-2111}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K.; Habte, F.; Chinn, G.; Zhang, J. & Levin, C.S. Count Rate Studies of a Box-Shaped PET Breast Imaging System Comprised of Position Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes Utilizing Monte Carlo Simulation 2006 Physica Medica
    Vol. 21, pp. 64-67  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Foudray2006a,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and F. Habte and G. Chinn and J. Zhang and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Count Rate Studies of a Box-Shaped PET Breast Imaging System Comprised of Position Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes Utilizing Monte Carlo Simulation},
      journal = {Physica Medica},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {64-67}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. Bayesian Estimator for Angle Recovery: Event Classification and Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography 2007 Journal of Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, American Institutes of Physics
    Vol. 954, pp. 362-371  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Foudray2007,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Bayesian Estimator for Angle Recovery: Event Classification and Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography},
      journal = {Journal of Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, American Institutes of Physics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {954},
      pages = {362-371}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. Bayesian Estimator for Angle Recovery: Event Classification and Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography 2007 Conference Proceedings of the 27th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, pp. 362-371  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Foudray2007a,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Bayesian Estimator for Angle Recovery: Event Classification and Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography},
      booktitle = {Conference Proceedings of the 27th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {362-371}
    }
    					
    Gu, Y. & Levin, C.S. Effects of Photon Multiple Interactions in a High Resolution PET System that Uses 3-D Positioning Detectors 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 3814-3819  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Gu2008a,
      author = {Y. Gu and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Effects of Photon Multiple Interactions in a High Resolution PET System that Uses 3-D Positioning Detectors},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {3814-3819}
    }
    					
    Gu, Y.; Pratx, G.; Lau, F.W.Y. & Levin, C.S. Effects of multiple-interaction photon events in a high-resolution PET system that uses 3-D positioning detectors 2010 MEDICAL PHYSICS
    Vol. 37, pp. 5494-5508  
    Abstract: Purpose: The authors' laboratory is developing a dual-panel, breast-dedicated PET system. The detector panels are built from dual-LSO-position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) modules-units holding two 8 X 8 arrays of 1 mm(3) LSO crystals, where each array is coupled to a PSAPD. When stacked to form an imaging volume, these modules are capable of recording the 3-D coordinates of individual interactions of a multiple-interaction photon event (MIPE). The small size of the scintillation crystal elements used increases the likelihood of photon scattering between crystal arrays. In this article, the authors investigate how MIPEs impact the system photon sensitivity, the data acquisition scheme, and the quality and quantitative accuracy of reconstructed PET images. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulated PET scan using the dual-panel system was performed on a uniformly radioactive phantom for the photon sensitivity study. To establish the impact of MIPEs on a proposed PSAPD multiplexing scheme, experimental data were collected from a dual-LSO-PSAPD module edge-irradiated with a Na-22 point source, the data were compared against simulation data based on an identical setup. To assess the impact of MIPEs on the dual-panel PET images, a simulated PET of a phantom comprising a matrix of hot spherical radiation sources of varying diameters immersed in a warm background was performed. The list-mode output data were used for image reconstruction, where various methods were used for estimating the location of the first photon interaction in MIPEs for more accurate line of response positioning. The contrast recovery coefficient (CRC), contrast to noise ratio (CNR), and the full width at half maximum spatial resolution of the spheres in the reconstructed images were used as figures of merit to facilitate comparison. Results: Compared to image reconstruction employing only events with interactions confined to one LSO array, a potential single photon sensitivity gain of >46.9% (>115.7% for coincidence) was noted for a uniform phantom when MIPEs with summed-energy falling within a +/- 12% window around the photopeak were also included. Both experimental and simulation data demonstrate that <0.4% of the events whose summed-energy deposition falling within that energy window interacted with both crystal arrays within the same dual-LSO-PSAPD module. This result establishes the feasibility of a proposed multiplexed readout of analog output signals of the two PSAPDs within each module. Using MIPEs with summed-energy deposition within the 511 keV +/- 12% photopeak window and a new method for estimating the location of the first photon interaction in MIPEs, the corresponding reconstructed image exhibited a peak CNR of 7.23 for the 8 mm diameter phantom spheres versus a CNR of 6.69 from images based solely on single LSO array interaction events. The improved system photon sensitivity could be exploited to reduce the scan time by up to approximately 10 while still maintaining image quality comparable to that achieved if MIPEs were excluded. Conclusions: MIPE distribution in the detectors allows the proposed photodetector multiplexing arrangement without significant information loss. Furthermore, acquiring MIPEs can enhance system photon sensitivity and improve PET image CNR and CRC. The system under development can therefore competently acquire and analyze MIPEs and produce high-resolution PET images. (C) 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. [DOI: 10.1118/1.3483262]
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gu2010,
      author = {Y. Gu and G. Pratx and F. W. Y. Lau and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Effects of multiple-interaction photon events in a high-resolution PET system that uses 3-D positioning detectors},
      journal = {MEDICAL PHYSICS},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {37},
      number = {10},
      pages = {5494-5508},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.3483262}
    }
    					
    Habte, F.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Effects of System Geometry and Other Physical Factors on Photon Sensitivity of High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography 2007 Physics in Medicine and. Biology
    Vol. 52, pp. 3753-3772  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Habte2007a,
      author = {F. Habte and A. M. K. Foudray and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Effects of System Geometry and Other Physical Factors on Photon Sensitivity of High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography},
      journal = {Physics in Medicine and. Biology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {52},
      pages = {3753-3772}
    }
    					
    Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Levin, C.S.; Zhang, J. & Chinn, G. Simulation and Measurement of Gamma-Ray and Annihilation Photon Imaging Detectors 2008 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Habte2008,
      author = {F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin and J. Zhang and G. Chinn},
      title = {Simulation and Measurement of Gamma-Ray and Annihilation Photon Imaging Detectors},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2008},
      note = {Submitted}
    }
    					
    Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Levin, C.S.; Zhang, J. & Chinn, G. Simulation and Measurement of Gamma-Ray and Annihilation Photon Imaging Detectors 2004 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, VI, pp. 4019-4022  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Habte2004a,
      author = {F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin and J. Zhang and G. Chinn},
      title = {Simulation and Measurement of Gamma-Ray and Annihilation Photon Imaging Detectors},
      booktitle = {2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, VI},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {4019-4022}
    }
    					
    Habte, F.; Pratx, G.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. New Geometry for a Whole Body PET System 2009 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Habte2009a,
      author = {F. Habte and G. Pratx and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {New Geometry for a Whole Body PET System},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Submitted}
    }
    					
    Holdsworth, C.; Levin, C.S.; Dahlbom, M.; Farquhar, T. & Hoffman, E.J. Investigation of Accelerated Monte Carlo Techniques for PET Simulation and 3-D PET Scatter Correction 2001 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 48-1, pp. 74-81  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holdsworth2001,
      author = {C. Holdsworth and C. S. Levin and M. Dahlbom and T. Farquhar and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Investigation of Accelerated Monte Carlo Techniques for PET Simulation and 3-D PET Scatter Correction},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {48-1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {74-81}
    }
    					
    Holdsworth, C.; Levin, C.S.; Dahlbom, M.; Farquhar, T. & Hoffman, E.J. Investigation of Accelerated Monte Carlo Techniques for PET Simulation and 3D PET Scatter Correction 1999 1999 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III, pp. 1500-1504  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Holdsworth1999,
      author = {C. Holdsworth and C. S. Levin and M. Dahlbom and T. Farquhar and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Investigation of Accelerated Monte Carlo Techniques for PET Simulation and 3D PET Scatter Correction},
      booktitle = {1999 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III},
      year = {1999},
      pages = {1500-1504}
    }
    					
    Holdsworth, C.H.; Dahlbom, M.; Liu, A.; Williams, L.; Levin, C.S.; Janecek, M. & Hoffman, E.J. Expanding the Versatility of a More Accurate Accelerated Monte Carlo Simulation for 3D PET: Data Correction of PET Emission Scans Using ^124I 2001 2001 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, IV, pp. 2105-2109  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Holdsworth2001a,
      author = {C. H. Holdsworth and M. Dahlbom and A. Liu and L. Williams and C. S. Levin and M. Janecek and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Expanding the Versatility of a More Accurate Accelerated Monte Carlo Simulation for 3D PET: Data Correction of PET Emission Scans Using ^124I},
      booktitle = {2001 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, IV},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {2105-2109}
    }
    					
    Holdsworth, C.H.; Levin, C.S.; Janecek, M.; Dahlbom, M. & Hoffman, E.J. Performance Analysis of an Improved 3-D PET Monte Carlo Simulation and Scatter Correction 2002 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 49-1, pp. 83-89  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holdsworth2002,
      author = {C. H. Holdsworth and C. S. Levin and M. Janecek and M. Dahlbom and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Performance Analysis of an Improved 3-D PET Monte Carlo Simulation and Scatter Correction},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {49-1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {83-89}
    }
    					
    Holdsworth, C.H.; Levin, C.S.; Janecek, M.; Dahlbom, M. & Hoffman, E.J. Performance Analysis of an Improved 3D PET Monte Carlo Simulation and Scatter Correction 2000 2000 IEEE Medical Imaging Conference Record, II, pp. 1353-1357  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Holdsworth2000,
      author = {C. H. Holdsworth and C. S. Levin and M. Janecek and M. Dahlbom and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Performance Analysis of an Improved 3D PET Monte Carlo Simulation and Scatter Correction},
      booktitle = {2000 IEEE Medical Imaging Conference Record, II},
      year = {2000},
      pages = {1353-1357}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. New Imaging Technologies to Enhance the Molecular Sensitivity of Positron Emission Tomography 2008 Proceedings of the IEEE, pp. 439-467  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2008,
      author = {C. S. Levin},
      title = {New Imaging Technologies to Enhance the Molecular Sensitivity of Positron Emission Tomography},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {439-467}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. Design of a High-Resolution and High-Sensitivity Scintillation Crystal Array for PET with Nearly Complete Light Collection 2002 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 49-5, pp. 2236-2243  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2002,
      author = {C. S. Levin},
      title = {Design of a High-Resolution and High-Sensitivity Scintillation Crystal Array for PET with Nearly Complete Light Collection},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {49-5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {2236-2243}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. Design of a High Resolution and High Sensitivity Scintillation Crystal Array with Nearly Perfect Light Collection 2001 2001 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, I, pp. 48-52  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Levin2001,
      author = {C. S. Levin},
      title = {Design of a High Resolution and High Sensitivity Scintillation Crystal Array with Nearly Perfect Light Collection},
      booktitle = {2001 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, I},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {48-52}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; Dahlbom, M. & Hoffman, E.J. A Monte Carlo Correction for the Effect of Compton Scattering in 3-D PET Brain Imaging 1995 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 42-4, pp. 1181-1185  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin1995,
      author = {C. S. Levin and M. Dahlbom and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {A Monte Carlo Correction for the Effect of Compton Scattering in 3-D PET Brain Imaging},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {42-4},
      pages = {1181-1185}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; Dahlbom, M. & Hoffman, E.J. A Monte Carlo Correction for Compton Scattering Effects in 3D PET Brain Imaging 1994 Conference Record of the 1994 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, III, pp. 1502-1506  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Levin1994,
      author = {C. S. Levin and M. Dahlbom and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {A Monte Carlo Correction for Compton Scattering Effects in 3D PET Brain Imaging},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 1994 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, III},
      year = {1994},
      pages = {1502-1506}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; Foudray, A.M.K. & Habte, F. Impact of High Energy Resolution Detectors on the Performance of a PET System Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging, (Selected Top 10 Most Cited Papers in Physica Medica (European Journal of Medical Physics) 2006 Physica Medica
    Vol. 21, pp. 28-34  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2006a,
      author = {C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray and F. Habte},
      title = {Impact of High Energy Resolution Detectors on the Performance of a PET System Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging, (Selected Top 10 Most Cited Papers in Physica Medica (European Journal of Medical Physics)},
      journal = {Physica Medica},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {28-34}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. & Hoffman, E.J. Calculation of Positron Range and its Effect on Positron Emission Tomography System Spatial Resolution 1999 Physics in Medicine and Biology
    Vol. 44, pp. 781-799  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin1999,
      author = {C. S. Levin and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Calculation of Positron Range and its Effect on Positron Emission Tomography System Spatial Resolution},
      journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {44},
      pages = {781-799}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; MacDonald, L.R.; Tornai, M.P.; Hoffman, E.J. & Park, J. Optimizing Light Collection from Thin Scintillators Used in a Beta-Ray Camera for Surgical Use 1996 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 43-3, pp. 2053-2060  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin1996,
      author = {C. S. Levin and L. R. MacDonald and M. P. Tornai and E. J. Hoffman and J. Park},
      title = {Optimizing Light Collection from Thin Scintillators Used in a Beta-Ray Camera for Surgical Use},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {43-3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {2053-2060}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; MacDonald, L.R.; Tornai, M.P.; Hoffman, E.J. & Park, J. Optimizing Light Collection from Thin Scintillators Used in a Beta-Ray Camera for Surgical Use 1995 Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, III, pp. 1796-1800  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Levin,
      author = {C. S. Levin and L. R. MacDonald and M. P. Tornai and E. J. Hoffman and J. Park},
      title = {Optimizing Light Collection from Thin Scintillators Used in a Beta-Ray Camera for Surgical Use},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, III},
      year = {1995},
      pages = {1796-1800}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; Tai, Y.-C.; Hoffman, E.J.; Dahlbom, M. & Farquhar, T.H. Removal of the Effect of Compton Scattering in 3D Whole Body Positron Emission Tomography by Monte Carlo 1995 Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, II, pp. 1050-1054  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Levin1995a,
      author = {C. S. Levin and Y-C Tai and E. J. Hoffman and M. Dahlbom and T. H. Farquhar},
      title = {Removal of the Effect of Compton Scattering in 3D Whole Body Positron Emission Tomography by Monte Carlo},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, II},
      year = {1995},
      pages = {1050-1054}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. & Zaidi, H. Current Trends in Pre-Clinical Positron Emission Tomography System Design 2007 PET Clinics
    Vol. 2, pp. 125-160  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2007,
      author = {C. S. Levin and H. Zaidi},
      title = {Current Trends in Pre-Clinical Positron Emission Tomography System Design},
      journal = {PET Clinics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {125-160}
    }
    					
    Olcott, P.D.; Buss, S.R.; Levin, C.S. & Pratx, G. GRAY: Photon Ray Tracer for PET Applications 2006 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, pp. 211-215  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Olcott2006a,
      author = {P. D. Olcott and S. R. Buss and C. S. Levin and G. Pratx},
      title = {GRAY: Photon Ray Tracer for PET Applications},
      booktitle = {2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {211-215}
    }
    					
    Olcott, P.D.; Zhang, J.; Levin, C.S.; Habte, F. & Foudray, A.M.K. Finite Element Model Based Spatial Linearity Correction for Scintillation Detectors That Use Position Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes 2005 2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, V, pp. 2459-2462  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Olcott2005b,
      author = {P. D. Olcott and J. Zhang and C. S. Levin and F. Habte and A. M. K. Foudray},
      title = {Finite Element Model Based Spatial Linearity Correction for Scintillation Detectors That Use Position Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes},
      booktitle = {2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, V},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {2459-2462}
    }
    					
    Peng, H. & Levin, C.S. Design study of a high-resolution breast-dedicated PET system built from cadmium zinc telluride detectors 2010 PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
    Vol. 55, pp. 2761-2788  
    Abstract: We studied the performance of a dual-panel positron emission tomography ( PET) camera dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed system consists of two 4 cm thick 12 x 15 cm(2) area cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) panels with adjustable separation, which can be put in close proximity to the breast and/or axillary nodes. Unique characteristics distinguishing the proposed system from previous efforts in breast-dedicated PET instrumentation are the deployment of CZT detectors with superior spatial and energy resolution, using a cross-strip electrode readout scheme to enable 3D positioning of individual photon interaction coordinates in the CZT, which includes directly measured photon depth-of-interaction (DOI), and arranging the detector slabs edge-on with respect to incoming 511 keV photons for high photon sensitivity. The simulation results show that the proposed CZT dual-panel PET system is able to achieve superior performance in terms of photon sensitivity, noise equivalent count rate, spatial resolution and lesion visualization. The proposed system is expected to achieve similar to 32% photon sensitivity for a point source at the center and a 4 cm panel separation. For a simplified breast phantom adjacent to heart and torso compartments, the peak noise equivalent count (NEC) rate is predicted to be similar to 94.2 kcts s(-1) (breast volume: 720 cm(3) and activity concentration: 3.7 kBq cm(-3)) for a similar to 10% energy window around 511 keV and similar to 8 ns coincidence time window. The system achieves 1 mm intrinsic spatial resolution anywhere between the two panels with a 4 cm panel separation if the detectors have DOI resolution less than 2 mm. For a 3 mm DOI resolution, the system exhibits excellent sphere resolution uniformity (sigma(rms)/mean) <= 10 across a 4 cm width FOV. Simulation results indicate that the system exhibits superior hot sphere visualization and is expected to visualize 2 mm diameter spheres with a 5:1 activity concentration ratio within roughly 7 min imaging time. Furthermore, we observe that the degree of spatial resolution degradation along the direction orthogonal to the two panels that is typical of a limited angle tomography configuration is mitigated by having high-resolution DOI capabilities that enable more accurate positioning of oblique response lines.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peng2010,
      author = {H. Peng and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Design study of a high-resolution breast-dedicated PET system built from cadmium zinc telluride detectors},
      journal = {PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {55},
      number = {9},
      pages = {2761-2788},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/55/9/022}
    }
    					
    Peng, H.; Levin, C.S. & Chronik, B.A. Simulation study of PET spatial resolution and contrast recovery improvement for PET/MRI dual modality systems 2009 Medical Physics  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peng2009a,
      author = {H. Peng and C. S. Levin and B. A. Chronik},
      title = {Simulation study of PET spatial resolution and contrast recovery improvement for PET/MRI dual modality systems},
      journal = {Medical Physics},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Submitted}
    }
    					
    Peng, H.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Can large-area avalanche photodiodes be used for a clinical PET/MRI block detector? 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 4675-4680  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Peng2008,
      author = {H. Peng and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Can large-area avalanche photodiodes be used for a clinical PET/MRI block detector?},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {4675-4680}
    }
    					
    Peng, H.; Olcott, P.D.; Pratx, G.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Design Study of a High Resolution Breast-Dedicated PET System Built from Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors 2007 Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 3700-3704  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Peng2007a,
      author = {H. Peng and P. D. Olcott and G. Pratx and A. M. K. Foudray and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Design Study of a High Resolution Breast-Dedicated PET System Built from Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {3700-3704}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G.; Chinn, G.; Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Fully 3D List-mode OSEM Accelerated with Graphics Processing Units 2006 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, pp. 2196-2202  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Pratx2006,
      author = {G. Pratx and G. Chinn and F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Fully 3D List-mode OSEM Accelerated with Graphics Processing Units},
      booktitle = {2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {2196-2202}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G.; Chinn, G.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Fast, Accurate and Shift-Varying Line Projections for Iterative Reconstruction Using the GPU 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Pratx2008,
      author = {G. Pratx and G. Chinn and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Fast, Accurate and Shift-Varying Line Projections for Iterative Reconstruction Using the GPU},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G. & Levin, C.S. Bayesian reconstruction of photon interaction sequences for high-resolution PET detectors, (Selected as Feature Article of the Month, American Institute of Physics, August 2009) 2009 Physics in Medicine and Biology
    Vol. 54, pp. 5073-5094  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pratx2009a,
      author = {G. Pratx and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Bayesian reconstruction of photon interaction sequences for high-resolution PET detectors, (Selected as Feature Article of the Month, American Institute of Physics, August 2009)},
      journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {54},
      number = {17},
      pages = {5073-5094}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G. & Levin, C.S. Online calculation of the detector response for high-resolution PET iterative image reconstruction 2009 IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pratx2009b,
      author = {G. Pratx and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Online calculation of the detector response for high-resolution PET iterative image reconstruction},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Submitted}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G. & Levin, C.S. Accurately Positioning Events in a High-Resolution PET System that uses 3D CZT Detectors 2007 Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 2660-2664  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Pratx2007,
      author = {G. Pratx and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Accurately Positioning Events in a High-Resolution PET System that uses 3D CZT Detectors},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {2660-2664}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G.; Olcott, P.D.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Fast, Accurate and Shift-Varying Line Projections for Iterative Reconstruction Using the GPU 2009 IEEE Transactions in Medical Imaging
    Vol. 28, pp. 435-445  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pratx2009,
      author = {G. Pratx and P. D. Olcott and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Fast, Accurate and Shift-Varying Line Projections for Iterative Reconstruction Using the GPU},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions in Medical Imaging},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {28},
      number = {3},
      pages = {435-445}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G.; Reader, A.J. & Levin, C.S. Faster Maximum-Likelihood Reconstruction via Explicit Conjugation of Search Directions 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 5070-5075  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Pratx2008a,
      author = {G. Pratx and A. J. Reader and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Faster Maximum-Likelihood Reconstruction via Explicit Conjugation of Search Directions},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {5070-5075}
    }
    					
    Spanoudaki, V.C.; Lau, F.W.Y.; Vandenbroucke, A. & Levin, C.S. Monte Carlo assessment of a dense mechanical design for a 1 mm3 resolution breast-dedicated PET system: effects on photon sensitivity, spatial resolution and multi-interaction photon events 2009 Medical Physics  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Spanoudaki2009,
      author = {V. C. Spanoudaki and F. W. Y. Lau and A. Vandenbroucke and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Monte Carlo assessment of a dense mechanical design for a 1 mm3 resolution breast-dedicated PET system: effects on photon sensitivity, spatial resolution and multi-interaction photon events},
      journal = {Medical Physics},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Submitted}
    }
    					
    Spanoudaki, V.C.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Lau, F.W.Y.; Fang, C. & Levin, C.S. Effects of Thermal Regulation Structures on the Photon Sensitivity and Spatial Resolution of a 1 mm^3 Resolution Breast-Dedicated PET System 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 5657-5661  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Spanoudaki2008,
      author = {V. C. Spanoudaki and A. Vandenbroucke and F. W. Y. Lau and C. Fang and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Effects of Thermal Regulation Structures on the Photon Sensitivity and Spatial Resolution of a 1 mm^3 Resolution Breast-Dedicated PET System},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {5657-5661}
    }
    					
    Tornai, M.P.; MacDonald, L.R.; Levin, C.S.; Siegel, S. & Hoffman, E.J. Design Considerations and Initial Performance of a 1.2 cm^2 Beta Imaging Intra-Operative Probe 1995 Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, III, pp. 1791-1795  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Tornai1995,
      author = {M. P. Tornai and L. R. MacDonald and C. S. Levin and S. Siegel and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Design Considerations and Initial Performance of a 1.2 cm^2 Beta Imaging Intra-Operative Probe},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, III},
      year = {1995},
      pages = {1791-1795}
    }
    					
    Vandenbroucke, A. & Levin, C.S. Study of Scintillation Crystal Array Parameters for an Advanced PET Scanner Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 4914-4919  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Vandenbroucke2008a,
      author = {A. Vandenbroucke and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Study of Scintillation Crystal Array Parameters for an Advanced PET Scanner Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {4914-4919}
    }
    					
    Zhang, J.; Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Evaluation of a Dual-Head PET Camera Design Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging 2006 Physica Medica
    Vol. 21, pp. 94-98  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zhang2006,
      author = {J. Zhang and G. Chinn and A. M. K. Foudray and F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Evaluation of a Dual-Head PET Camera Design Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging},
      journal = {Physica Medica},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {94-98}
    }
    					
    Zhang, J.; Olcott, P.D.; Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. Study of the Performance of a Novel 1 mm Resolution Dual-Panel PET Camera Design Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging Using Monte Carlo Simulation 2007 Medical Physics
    Vol. 34, pp. 689-702  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zhang2007,
      author = {J. Zhang and P. D. Olcott and G. Chinn and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Study of the Performance of a Novel 1 mm Resolution Dual-Panel PET Camera Design Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging Using Monte Carlo Simulation},
      journal = {Medical Physics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {34},
      number = {2},
      pages = {689-702}
    }
    					
    Zhang, J.; Olcott, P.D.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Dual-Plate PET Camera Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging 2005 2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III, pp. 1667-1671  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Zhang2005,
      author = {J. Zhang and P. D. Olcott and A. M. K. Foudray and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Dual-Plate PET Camera Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging},
      booktitle = {2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {1667-1671}
    }
    					

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