Molecular Imaging Instrumentation Laboratory  

Handheld Gamma Ray Camera to Guide Surgery

We have built a compact, high sensitivity, high resolution gamma ray imaging system, that requires only 1 second to collect and form useful images for decision making during surgical procedures. The system is currently used twice a week by surgical oncologists in image-guided melanoma and breast cancer staging procedures. We have plans to improve the camera technology to enable it to determine the depth of structures of interest, such as lymph nodes that drain a tumor basin, and expand its clinical evaluation in image-guided procedures. Other camera technologies have been studied in our group for a number of years.

Gamma Ray Camera

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    Author Title Year Jour./Proc./Book
    Dhanasopon, A.P.; Levin, C.S.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Olcott, P.D. & Habte, F. Scintillation Crystal Design Features for a Miniature Gamma-Ray Camera 2005 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 52, pp. 1439-1446  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dhanasopon2005,
      author = {A. P. Dhanasopon and C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray and P. D. Olcott and F. Habte},
      title = {Scintillation Crystal Design Features for a Miniature Gamma-Ray Camera},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {52},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1439-1446}
    }
    					
    Dhanasopon, P.; Levin, C.S.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Olcott, P.D. & Habte, F. Scintillation Crystal Design Features for a Miniature Gamma-Ray Camera 2003 2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III, pp. 199-205  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Dhanasopon2003,
      author = {P. Dhanasopon and C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray and P. D. Olcott and F. Habte},
      title = {Scintillation Crystal Design Features for a Miniature Gamma-Ray Camera},
      booktitle = {2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {199-205}
    }
    					
    Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Levin, C.S.; Zhang, J. & Chinn, G. Simulation and Measurement of Gamma-Ray and Annihilation Photon Imaging Detectors 2008 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Habte2008,
      author = {F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin and J. Zhang and G. Chinn},
      title = {Simulation and Measurement of Gamma-Ray and Annihilation Photon Imaging Detectors},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2008},
      note = {Submitted}
    }
    					
    Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Levin, C.S.; Zhang, J. & Chinn, G. Simulation and Measurement of Gamma-Ray and Annihilation Photon Imaging Detectors 2004 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, VI, pp. 4019-4022  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Habte2004a,
      author = {F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin and J. Zhang and G. Chinn},
      title = {Simulation and Measurement of Gamma-Ray and Annihilation Photon Imaging Detectors},
      booktitle = {2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, VI},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {4019-4022}
    }
    					
    Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D.; Levin, C.S. & Foudray, A.M.K. Prototype Parallel Readout System for Position Sensitive PMT based Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems 2007 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 54, pp. 60-65  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Habte2007,
      author = {F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray},
      title = {Prototype Parallel Readout System for Position Sensitive PMT based Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {54},
      number = {1},
      pages = {60-65}
    }
    					
    Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D.; Levin, C.S. & Foudray, A.M.K. Prototype Parallel Readout System for Position Sensitive PMT based Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems 2003 2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, II, pp. 60-65  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Habte2003,
      author = {F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray},
      title = {Prototype Parallel Readout System for Position Sensitive PMT based Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems},
      booktitle = {2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, II},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {60-65}
    }
    					
    Hoffman, E.J.; Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S.; MacDonald, L.R. & Holdsworth, C.H. A Dual Detector Beta-Ray Imaging Probe with Gamma-Ray Background Suppression for Use in Intra-Operative Detection of Radiolabeled Tumors 1998 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A
    Vol. 409, pp. 511-516  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoffman1998,
      author = {E. J. Hoffman and M. P. Tornai and C. S. Levin and L. R. MacDonald and C. H. Holdsworth},
      title = {A Dual Detector Beta-Ray Imaging Probe with Gamma-Ray Background Suppression for Use in Intra-Operative Detection of Radiolabeled Tumors},
      journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {409},
      pages = {511-516}
    }
    					
    Hoffman, E.J.; Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S.; MacDonald, L.R. & Siegel, S. Design and Performance of Gamma and Beta Intra-Operative Imaging Probes 1997 Physica Medica
    Vol. 13, pp. S243-247  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoffman1997,
      author = {E. J. Hoffman and M. P. Tornai and C. S. Levin and L. R. MacDonald and S. Siegel},
      title = {Design and Performance of Gamma and Beta Intra-Operative Imaging Probes},
      journal = {Physica Medica},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {S243-247}
    }
    					
    Hoffman, E.J.; Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S.; MacDonald, L.R. & Siegel, S. Gamma and Beta Intra-Operative Imaging Probes 1997 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A
    Vol. 392, pp. 324-329  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoffman1997a,
      author = {E. J. Hoffman and M. P. Tornai and C. S. Levin and L. R. MacDonald and S. Siegel},
      title = {Gamma and Beta Intra-Operative Imaging Probes},
      journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {392},
      pages = {324-329}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. Primer on Molecular Imaging Technology 2005 European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
    Vol. 32, pp. S325-345  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2005,
      author = {C. S. Levin},
      title = {Primer on Molecular Imaging Technology},
      journal = {European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {32},
      number = {2},
      pages = {S325-345}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. Detector Design Issues for Compact Nuclear Emission Cameras Dedicated to Functional Breast Imaging 2003 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A
    Vol. 497-1, pp. 60-74  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2003,
      author = {C. S. Levin},
      title = {Detector Design Issues for Compact Nuclear Emission Cameras Dedicated to Functional Breast Imaging},
      journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {497-1},
      pages = {60-74}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; Hoffman, E.J.; Tornai, M.P. & MacDonald, L.R. PSPMT and Photodiode Designs of a Small Scintillation Camera for Imaging Malignant Breast Tumors 1997 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 44-4, pp. 1513-1520  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin1997b,
      author = {C. S. Levin and E. J. Hoffman and M. P. Tornai and L. R. MacDonald},
      title = {PSPMT and Photodiode Designs of a Small Scintillation Camera for Imaging Malignant Breast Tumors},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {44-4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1513-1520}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; Hoffman, E.J.; Tornai, M.P. & MacDonald, L.R. PSPMT and Pin Diode Designs of a Small Scintillation Camera for Imaging Malignant Breast Tumors 1996 Conference Record of the 1996 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, II, pp. 1196-1200  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Levin1996b,
      author = {C. S. Levin and E. J. Hoffman and M. P. Tornai and L. R. MacDonald},
      title = {PSPMT and Pin Diode Designs of a Small Scintillation Camera for Imaging Malignant Breast Tumors},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 1996 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, II},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {1196-1200}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; Tornai, M.P.; Pani, R.; Garibaldi, F. & Mankoff, D.M. Preface 2006 Physica Medica
    Vol. 21, pp. 1-1  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2006,
      author = {C. S. Levin and M. P. Tornai and R. Pani and F. Garibaldi and D. M. Mankoff},
      title = {Preface},
      journal = {Physica Medica},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {1-1}
    }
    					
    McElroy, D.P.; Hoffman, E.J.; MacDonald, L.; Patt, B.E.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Yamaguchi, Y. & Levin, C.S. Evaluation of Breast Tumor Detectability with Two Dedicated, Compact Scintillation Cameras 2002 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 49-3, pp. 794-802  
    BibTeX:
    @article{McElroy2002,
      author = {D. P. McElroy and E. J. Hoffman and L. MacDonald and B. E. Patt and J. S. Iwanczyk and Y. Yamaguchi and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Evaluation of Breast Tumor Detectability with Two Dedicated, Compact Scintillation Cameras},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {49-3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {794-802}
    }
    					
    McElroy, D.P.; Hoffman, E.J.; Macdonald, L.; Patt, B.E.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Yamaguchi, Y. & Levin, C.S. Evaluation of Performance of Dedicated, Compact Scintillation Cameras 2000 2000 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III-21, pp. 109-113  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{McElroy2000,
      author = {D. P. McElroy and E. J. Hoffman and L. Macdonald and B. E. Patt and J. S. Iwanczyk and Y. Yamaguchi and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Evaluation of Performance of Dedicated, Compact Scintillation Cameras},
      booktitle = {2000 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III-21},
      year = {2000},
      pages = {109-113}
    }
    					
    Olcott, P.D.; Habte, F.; Levin, C.S. & Foudray, A.M.K. Performance Characterization of a Miniature, High Sensitivity Gamma-Ray Camera 2007 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 54, pp. 1492-1497  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Olcott2007,
      author = {P. D. Olcott and F. Habte and C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray},
      title = {Performance Characterization of a Miniature, High Sensitivity Gamma-Ray Camera},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {54},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1492-1497}
    }
    					
    Olcott, P.D.; Habte, F.; Levin, C.S. & Foudray, A.M.K. Characterization of Performance of a Miniature, High Sensitivity Gamma-Ray Camera 2004 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, VI, pp. 3997-4000  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Olcott2004,
      author = {P. D. Olcott and F. Habte and C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray},
      title = {Characterization of Performance of a Miniature, High Sensitivity Gamma-Ray Camera},
      booktitle = {2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, VI},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {3997-4000}
    }
    					
    Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Image Processing Algorithms to Facilitate and Enhance Sentinel Node Detection using a Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Camera in Surgical Breast Cancer Staging 2006 Physica Medica
    Vol. 21, pp. 99-101  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Olcott2006,
      author = {P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Image Processing Algorithms to Facilitate and Enhance Sentinel Node Detection using a Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Camera in Surgical Breast Cancer Staging},
      journal = {Physica Medica},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {99-101}
    }
    					
    Patt, B.E.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S. & Hoffman, E.J. Development of a Mercuric Iodide Detector Array for Medical Imaging Applications 1995 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A
    Vol. 366, pp. 173-182  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Patt1995,
      author = {B. E. Patt and J. S. Iwanczyk and M. P. Tornai and C. S. Levin and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Development of a Mercuric Iodide Detector Array for Medical Imaging Applications},
      journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {366},
      pages = {173-182}
    }
    					
    Patt, B.E.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Wang, Y.J.; Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S. & Hoffman, E.J. Mercuric Iodide Photodetector Arrays for Gamma-Ray Imaging 1996 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A
    Vol. 380, pp. 295-300  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Patt1996,
      author = {B. E. Patt and J. S. Iwanczyk and Y. J. Wang and M. P. Tornai and C. S. Levin and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Mercuric Iodide Photodetector Arrays for Gamma-Ray Imaging},
      journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {380},
      pages = {295-300}
    }
    					
    Patt, B.E.; Tornai, M.P.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Levin, C.S. & Hoffman, E.J. Development of an Intraoperative Gamma Camera Based on a 256-Pixel Mercuric Iodide Detector Array 1997 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 44-3, pp. 1242-1248  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Patt1997,
      author = {B. E. Patt and M. P. Tornai and J. S. Iwanczyk and C. S. Levin and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Development of an Intraoperative Gamma Camera Based on a 256-Pixel Mercuric Iodide Detector Array},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {44-3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {1242-1248}
    }
    					
    Tornai, M.P.; Archer, C.; Wiesenberger, A.G.; Wojcik, R.; Popov, V.; Keppel, C.E.; Levin, C.S.; Majewski, S.; Tipnis, S.V. & Nagarkar, V.V. Investigation of Microcolumnar Scintillators on an Optical Fiber Coupled Compact Imaging System 2001 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 48-3, pp. 637-644  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tornai2001,
      author = {M. P. Tornai and C. Archer and A. G. Wiesenberger and R. Wojcik and V. Popov and C. E. Keppel and C. S. Levin and S. Majewski and S. V. Tipnis and V. V. Nagarkar},
      title = {Investigation of Microcolumnar Scintillators on an Optical Fiber Coupled Compact Imaging System},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {48-3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {637-644}
    }
    					
    Tornai, M.P.; C.Archer; Wiesenberger, A.G.; Wojcik, R.; Popov, V.; Keppel, C.E.; Levin, C.S.; Majewski, S.; Tipnis, S.V. & Nagarkar, V.V. Investigation of Micro-Columnar Scintillators on an Optical Fiber Coupled Compact Imaging System 2000 2000 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III-21, pp. 19-23  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Tornai2000,
      author = {M. P. Tornai and C.Archer and A. G. Wiesenberger and R. Wojcik and V. Popov and C. E. Keppel and C. S. Levin and S. Majewski and S. V. Tipnis and V. V. Nagarkar},
      title = {Investigation of Micro-Columnar Scintillators on an Optical Fiber Coupled Compact Imaging System},
      booktitle = {2000 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III-21},
      year = {2000},
      pages = {19-23}
    }
    					
    Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S.; MacDonald, L.R.; Hoffman, E.J. & Park, J. Investigation of Crystal Geometries for Fiber Coupled Gamma Imaging Intra-Operative Probes 1997 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 44-3, pp. 1254-1261  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tornai1997,
      author = {M. P. Tornai and C. S. Levin and L. R. MacDonald and E. J. Hoffman and J. Park},
      title = {Investigation of Crystal Geometries for Fiber Coupled Gamma Imaging Intra-Operative Probes},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {44-3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {1254-1261}
    }
    					
    Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S.; MacDonald, L.R.; Hoffman, E.J. & Park, J. Investigation of Crystal Geometries for Fiber Coupled Gamma Imaging Intra-Operative Probes 1996 Conference Record of the 1996 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, II, pp. 1135-1139  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Tornai1996c,
      author = {M. P. Tornai and C. S. Levin and L. R. MacDonald and E. J. Hoffman and J. Park},
      title = {Investigation of Crystal Geometries for Fiber Coupled Gamma Imaging Intra-Operative Probes},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 1996 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, II},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {1135-1139}
    }
    					
    Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S.; MacDonald, L.R.; Holdsworth, C.H. & Hoffman, E.J. A Miniature Phoswich Detector for Gamma-Ray Localization and Beta Imaging 1998 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 45-3, pp. 1166-1173  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tornai1998,
      author = {M. P. Tornai and C. S. Levin and L. R. MacDonald and C. H. Holdsworth and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {A Miniature Phoswich Detector for Gamma-Ray Localization and Beta Imaging},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {45-3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {1166-1173}
    }
    					
    Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S.; MacDonald, L.R.; Holdsworth, C.H. & Hoffman, E.J. A Miniature Phoswich Detector for Gamma-Ray Localization and Beta Imaging 1997 1997 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, II, pp. 1028-1032  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Tornai1997b,
      author = {M. P. Tornai and C. S. Levin and L. R. MacDonald and C. H. Holdsworth and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {A Miniature Phoswich Detector for Gamma-Ray Localization and Beta Imaging},
      booktitle = {1997 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, II},
      year = {1997},
      pages = {1028-1032}
    }
    					
    Tornai, M.P.; Patt, B.E.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Levin, C.S. & Hoffman, E.J. Discrete Scintillator Coupled Mercuric Iodide Photodetector Arrays for Breast Imaging 1997 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 44-3, pp. 1127-1133  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tornai1997a,
      author = {M. P. Tornai and B. E. Patt and J. S. Iwanczyk and C. S. Levin and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Discrete Scintillator Coupled Mercuric Iodide Photodetector Arrays for Breast Imaging},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {44-3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {1127-1133}
    }
    					
    Tornai, M.P.; Patt, B.E.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Levin, C.S. & Hoffman, E.J. Discrete Scintillator Coupled Mercuric Iodide Photodetector Arrays for Breast Imaging 1996 Conference Record of the 1996 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, II, pp. 1034-1038  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Tornai1996d,
      author = {M. P. Tornai and B. E. Patt and J. S. Iwanczyk and C. S. Levin and E. J. Hoffman},
      title = {Discrete Scintillator Coupled Mercuric Iodide Photodetector Arrays for Breast Imaging},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 1996 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, II},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {1034-1038}
    }
    					

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