Molecular Imaging Instrumentation Laboratory  

Algorithms that Exploit 3-D Positioning PET Detectors to Enhance System Performance

We are investigating high resolution detectors that can record the three-dimensional coordinates, energy, and arrival time of every interaction that an incoming 511 keV photon encounters as it traverses the PET system. Algorithms under development that exploit these unique “3D positioning” capabilities can yield improved image quality and accuracy in PET. For example, we can use this rich information from multiple interactions in the detector material to, in conjunction with new algorithms under study, estimate the incident photon entrance angle with respect to the detector face. Having good incident photon angular resolution enables unprecedented new features in PET such as the ability to accurately position and retain rather than reject single (un-paired) annihilation photons or tissue-scattered photons entering the system, or to extract paired coincident photons from multiple photon (>2) coincidence events that are normally disg\carded. If successful this enables great increases in detected photon statistics compared to the standard PET processing chain that rejects such event types. Photon incidence angle also enables more accurate rejection of “random” coincidence photon background, which yields better image contrast resolution.


Types of events that may be treated with 3-D positioning detectors:

Types of events that may be treated with 3-D positioning detectors

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    Author Title Year Jour./Proc./Book
    Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. A Method to Include Single Photon Events in Image Reconstruction for a 1 mm Resolution PET System 2006 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, pp. 1740-1745  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Chinn2006,
      author = {G. Chinn and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {A Method to Include Single Photon Events in Image Reconstruction for a 1 mm Resolution PET System},
      booktitle = {2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {1740-1745}
    }
    					
    Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. Comparing Geometries for a PET System with 3D Photon Positioning Capability 2005 2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III, pp. 1709-1712  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Chinn2005,
      author = {G. Chinn and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Comparing Geometries for a PET System with 3D Photon Positioning Capability},
      booktitle = {2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {1709-1712}
    }
    					
    Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. A Method to Reject Random Coincidences and Extract True from Multiple Coincidences in PET using 3-D Detectors 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 5249-5254  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Chinn2008,
      author = {G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {A Method to Reject Random Coincidences and Extract True from Multiple Coincidences in PET using 3-D Detectors},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {5249-5254}
    }
    					
    Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. PET Image Reconstruction with a Bayesian Projector for Multi-Electronic Collimation Schemes 2007 Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 2799-2802  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Chinn2007,
      author = {G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {PET Image Reconstruction with a Bayesian Projector for Multi-Electronic Collimation Schemes},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {2799-2802}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Incident Photon Direction Calculation Using Bayesian Estimation for High Energy Photon Detector Systems with 3D Positioning Capability 2006 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, pp. 208-210  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Foudray2006c,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Incident Photon Direction Calculation Using Bayesian Estimation for High Energy Photon Detector Systems with 3D Positioning Capability},
      booktitle = {2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {208-210}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Component Based Normalization for PET Systems with Depth of Interaction Measurement Capability 2005 2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, IV, pp. 2108-2111  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Foudray2005,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Component Based Normalization for PET Systems with Depth of Interaction Measurement Capability},
      booktitle = {2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, IV},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {2108-2111}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K.; Habte, F.; Chinn, G.; Zhang, J. & Levin, C.S. Count Rate Studies of a Box-Shaped PET Breast Imaging System Comprised of Position Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes Utilizing Monte Carlo Simulation 2006 Physica Medica
    Vol. 21, pp. 64-67  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Foudray2006a,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and F. Habte and G. Chinn and J. Zhang and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Count Rate Studies of a Box-Shaped PET Breast Imaging System Comprised of Position Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes Utilizing Monte Carlo Simulation},
      journal = {Physica Medica},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {64-67}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. Bayesian Estimator for Angle Recovery: Event Classification and Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography 2007 Journal of Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, American Institutes of Physics
    Vol. 954, pp. 362-371  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Foudray2007,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Bayesian Estimator for Angle Recovery: Event Classification and Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography},
      journal = {Journal of Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, American Institutes of Physics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {954},
      pages = {362-371}
    }
    					
    Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. Bayesian Estimator for Angle Recovery: Event Classification and Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography 2007 Conference Proceedings of the 27th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, pp. 362-371  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Foudray2007a,
      author = {A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Bayesian Estimator for Angle Recovery: Event Classification and Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography},
      booktitle = {Conference Proceedings of the 27th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {362-371}
    }
    					
    Gu, Y. & Levin, C.S. Effects of Photon Multiple Interactions in a High Resolution PET System that Uses 3-D Positioning Detectors 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 3814-3819  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Gu2008a,
      author = {Y. Gu and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Effects of Photon Multiple Interactions in a High Resolution PET System that Uses 3-D Positioning Detectors},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {3814-3819}
    }
    					
    Gu, Y.; Pratx, G.; Lau, F.W.Y. & Levin, C.S. Effects of multiple-interaction photon events in a high-resolution PET system that uses 3-D positioning detectors 2010 MEDICAL PHYSICS
    Vol. 37, pp. 5494-5508  
    Abstract: Purpose: The authors' laboratory is developing a dual-panel, breast-dedicated PET system. The detector panels are built from dual-LSO-position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) modules-units holding two 8 X 8 arrays of 1 mm(3) LSO crystals, where each array is coupled to a PSAPD. When stacked to form an imaging volume, these modules are capable of recording the 3-D coordinates of individual interactions of a multiple-interaction photon event (MIPE). The small size of the scintillation crystal elements used increases the likelihood of photon scattering between crystal arrays. In this article, the authors investigate how MIPEs impact the system photon sensitivity, the data acquisition scheme, and the quality and quantitative accuracy of reconstructed PET images. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulated PET scan using the dual-panel system was performed on a uniformly radioactive phantom for the photon sensitivity study. To establish the impact of MIPEs on a proposed PSAPD multiplexing scheme, experimental data were collected from a dual-LSO-PSAPD module edge-irradiated with a Na-22 point source, the data were compared against simulation data based on an identical setup. To assess the impact of MIPEs on the dual-panel PET images, a simulated PET of a phantom comprising a matrix of hot spherical radiation sources of varying diameters immersed in a warm background was performed. The list-mode output data were used for image reconstruction, where various methods were used for estimating the location of the first photon interaction in MIPEs for more accurate line of response positioning. The contrast recovery coefficient (CRC), contrast to noise ratio (CNR), and the full width at half maximum spatial resolution of the spheres in the reconstructed images were used as figures of merit to facilitate comparison. Results: Compared to image reconstruction employing only events with interactions confined to one LSO array, a potential single photon sensitivity gain of >46.9% (>115.7% for coincidence) was noted for a uniform phantom when MIPEs with summed-energy falling within a +/- 12% window around the photopeak were also included. Both experimental and simulation data demonstrate that <0.4% of the events whose summed-energy deposition falling within that energy window interacted with both crystal arrays within the same dual-LSO-PSAPD module. This result establishes the feasibility of a proposed multiplexed readout of analog output signals of the two PSAPDs within each module. Using MIPEs with summed-energy deposition within the 511 keV +/- 12% photopeak window and a new method for estimating the location of the first photon interaction in MIPEs, the corresponding reconstructed image exhibited a peak CNR of 7.23 for the 8 mm diameter phantom spheres versus a CNR of 6.69 from images based solely on single LSO array interaction events. The improved system photon sensitivity could be exploited to reduce the scan time by up to approximately 10 while still maintaining image quality comparable to that achieved if MIPEs were excluded. Conclusions: MIPE distribution in the detectors allows the proposed photodetector multiplexing arrangement without significant information loss. Furthermore, acquiring MIPEs can enhance system photon sensitivity and improve PET image CNR and CRC. The system under development can therefore competently acquire and analyze MIPEs and produce high-resolution PET images. (C) 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. [DOI: 10.1118/1.3483262]
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gu2010,
      author = {Y. Gu and G. Pratx and F. W. Y. Lau and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Effects of multiple-interaction photon events in a high-resolution PET system that uses 3-D positioning detectors},
      journal = {MEDICAL PHYSICS},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {37},
      number = {10},
      pages = {5494-5508},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.3483262}
    }
    					
    Habte, F.; Pratx, G.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. New Geometry for a Whole Body PET System 2009 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Habte2009a,
      author = {F. Habte and G. Pratx and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {New Geometry for a Whole Body PET System},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Submitted}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. New Imaging Technologies to Enhance the Molecular Sensitivity of Positron Emission Tomography 2008 Proceedings of the IEEE, pp. 439-467  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2008,
      author = {C. S. Levin},
      title = {New Imaging Technologies to Enhance the Molecular Sensitivity of Positron Emission Tomography},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {439-467}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. Advancing Small Animal Positron Emission Tomography Instrumentation to Enhance Molecular Sensitivity 2006 2006 Conference Proceedings, Workshop on the Next Generation PET Scanner, pp. 52-56  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Levin2006b,
      author = {C. S. Levin},
      title = {Advancing Small Animal Positron Emission Tomography Instrumentation to Enhance Molecular Sensitivity},
      booktitle = {2006 Conference Proceedings, Workshop on the Next Generation PET Scanner},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {52-56}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. Detector Design Issues for Compact Nuclear Emission Cameras Dedicated to Functional Breast Imaging 2003 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A
    Vol. 497-1, pp. 60-74  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2003,
      author = {C. S. Levin},
      title = {Detector Design Issues for Compact Nuclear Emission Cameras Dedicated to Functional Breast Imaging},
      journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {497-1},
      pages = {60-74}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. Design of a High Resolution and High Sensitivity Scintillation Crystal Array with Nearly Perfect Light Collection 2001 2001 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, I, pp. 48-52  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Levin2001,
      author = {C. S. Levin},
      title = {Design of a High Resolution and High Sensitivity Scintillation Crystal Array with Nearly Perfect Light Collection},
      booktitle = {2001 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, I},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {48-52}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Olcott, P.D. & Habte, F. Investigation of Position Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes for a New High Resolution PET Detector Design 2003 2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, IV, pp. 2262-2266  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Levin2003a,
      author = {C. S. Levin and A. M. K. Foudray and P. D. Olcott and F. Habte},
      title = {Investigation of Position Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes for a New High Resolution PET Detector Design},
      booktitle = {2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, IV},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {2262-2266}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. & Habte, F. Initial Studies of a New Detector Design for Ultra-High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography 2002 2002 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III, pp. 1751-1755  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Levin2002a,
      author = {C. S. Levin and F. Habte},
      title = {Initial Studies of a New Detector Design for Ultra-High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography},
      booktitle = {2002 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {1751-1755}
    }
    					
    Levin, C.S. & Zaidi, H. Current Trends in Pre-Clinical Positron Emission Tomography System Design 2007 PET Clinics
    Vol. 2, pp. 125-160  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin2007,
      author = {C. S. Levin and H. Zaidi},
      title = {Current Trends in Pre-Clinical Positron Emission Tomography System Design},
      journal = {PET Clinics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {125-160}
    }
    					
    Matteson, J.L.; Gu, Y.; Skelton, R.T.; Deal, A.A.; Stephan, E.A.; Duttweiler, F.; Huszar, G.L.; Gasaway, T.M. & Levin, C.S. Charge Collection Studies of a High Resolution CZT-Based Detector for PET 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 503-510  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Matteson2008,
      author = {J. L. Matteson and Y. Gu and R. T. Skelton and A. A. Deal and E. A. Stephan and F. Duttweiler and G. L. Huszar and T. M. Gasaway and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Charge Collection Studies of a High Resolution CZT-Based Detector for PET},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {503-510}
    }
    					
    Peng, H.; Olcott, P.D.; Pratx, G.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Design Study of a High Resolution Breast-Dedicated PET System Built from Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors 2007 Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 3700-3704  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Peng2007a,
      author = {H. Peng and P. D. Olcott and G. Pratx and A. M. K. Foudray and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Design Study of a High Resolution Breast-Dedicated PET System Built from Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {3700-3704}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G.; Chinn, G.; Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Fully 3D List-mode OSEM Accelerated with Graphics Processing Units 2006 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, pp. 2196-2202  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Pratx2006,
      author = {G. Pratx and G. Chinn and F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Fully 3D List-mode OSEM Accelerated with Graphics Processing Units},
      booktitle = {2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {2196-2202}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G.; Chinn, G.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Fast, Accurate and Shift-Varying Line Projections for Iterative Reconstruction Using the GPU 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Pratx2008,
      author = {G. Pratx and G. Chinn and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Fast, Accurate and Shift-Varying Line Projections for Iterative Reconstruction Using the GPU},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G. & Levin, C.S. Bayesian reconstruction of photon interaction sequences for high-resolution PET detectors, (Selected as Feature Article of the Month, American Institute of Physics, August 2009) 2009 Physics in Medicine and Biology
    Vol. 54, pp. 5073-5094  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pratx2009a,
      author = {G. Pratx and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Bayesian reconstruction of photon interaction sequences for high-resolution PET detectors, (Selected as Feature Article of the Month, American Institute of Physics, August 2009)},
      journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {54},
      number = {17},
      pages = {5073-5094}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G. & Levin, C.S. Online calculation of the detector response for high-resolution PET iterative image reconstruction 2009 IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pratx2009b,
      author = {G. Pratx and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Online calculation of the detector response for high-resolution PET iterative image reconstruction},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Submitted}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G. & Levin, C.S. Accurately Positioning Events in a High-Resolution PET System that uses 3D CZT Detectors 2007 Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 2660-2664  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Pratx2007,
      author = {G. Pratx and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Accurately Positioning Events in a High-Resolution PET System that uses 3D CZT Detectors},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {2660-2664}
    }
    					
    Pratx, G.; Olcott, P.D.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Fast, Accurate and Shift-Varying Line Projections for Iterative Reconstruction Using the GPU 2009 IEEE Transactions in Medical Imaging
    Vol. 28, pp. 435-445  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pratx2009,
      author = {G. Pratx and P. D. Olcott and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Fast, Accurate and Shift-Varying Line Projections for Iterative Reconstruction Using the GPU},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions in Medical Imaging},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {28},
      number = {3},
      pages = {435-445}
    }
    					
    Reynolds, P.D.; Olcott, P.D.; Lau, F.W.Y. & Levin, C.S. Convex Optimization of Coincidence Time Resolution for High Resolution PET Systems 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 4068-4073  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Reynolds2008,
      author = {P. D. Reynolds and P. D. Olcott and F. W. Y. Lau and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Convex Optimization of Coincidence Time Resolution for High Resolution PET Systems},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {4068-4073}
    }
    					
    Spanoudaki, V.C.; Lau, F.W.Y.; Vandenbroucke, A. & Levin, C.S. Monte Carlo assessment of a dense mechanical design for a 1 mm3 resolution breast-dedicated PET system: effects on photon sensitivity, spatial resolution and multi-interaction photon events 2009 Medical Physics  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Spanoudaki2009,
      author = {V. C. Spanoudaki and F. W. Y. Lau and A. Vandenbroucke and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Monte Carlo assessment of a dense mechanical design for a 1 mm3 resolution breast-dedicated PET system: effects on photon sensitivity, spatial resolution and multi-interaction photon events},
      journal = {Medical Physics},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Submitted}
    }
    					
    Spanoudaki, V.C.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Lau, F.W.Y.; Fang, C. & Levin, C.S. Effects of Thermal Regulation Structures on the Photon Sensitivity and Spatial Resolution of a 1 mm^3 Resolution Breast-Dedicated PET System 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 5657-5661  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Spanoudaki2008,
      author = {V. C. Spanoudaki and A. Vandenbroucke and F. W. Y. Lau and C. Fang and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Effects of Thermal Regulation Structures on the Photon Sensitivity and Spatial Resolution of a 1 mm^3 Resolution Breast-Dedicated PET System},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {5657-5661}
    }
    					
    Vandenbroucke, A.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Lau, F.W.Y.; Olcott, P.D.; Reynolds, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Performance characterization of a new high resolution, 3-D positioning PET scintillation detector 2008 Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, pp. 3604-3608  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Vandenbroucke2008,
      author = {A. Vandenbroucke and A. M. K. Foudray and F. W. Y. Lau and P. D. Olcott and P. D. Reynolds and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Performance characterization of a new high resolution, 3-D positioning PET scintillation detector},
      booktitle = {Conference Record of the 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {3604-3608}
    }
    					
    Vandenbroucke, A.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Performance characterization of a new high resolution PET scintillation detector 2010 PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
    Vol. 55, pp. 5895-5911  
    Abstract: Performance of a new high resolution PET detection concept is presented. In this new concept, annihilation radiation enters the scintillator detectors edge-on. Each detector module comprises two 8 x 8 LYSO scintillator arrays of 0.91 x 0.91 x 1 mm(3) crystals coupled to two position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) mounted on a flex circuit. Appropriate crystal segmentation allows the recording of all three spatial coordinates of the interaction(s) simultaneously with submillimeter resolution. We report an average energy resolution of 14.6 +/- 1.7% for 511 keV photons at FWHM. Coincident time resolution was determined to be 2.98 +/- 0.13 ns FWHM on average. The coincidence point spread function (PSF) has an average FWHM of 0.837 +/- 0.049 mm (using a 500 mu m spherical source) and is uniform across the arrays. Both PSF and coincident time resolution degrade when Compton interactions are included in the data. Different blurring factors were evaluated theoretically, resulting in a calculated PSF of 0.793 mm, in good agreement with the measured value.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vandenbroucke2010,
      author = {A. Vandenbroucke and A. M. K. Foudray and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Performance characterization of a new high resolution PET scintillation detector},
      journal = {PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {55},
      number = {19},
      pages = {5895-5911},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/55/19/018}
    }
    					
    Zhang, J.; Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Habte, F.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Evaluation of a Dual-Head PET Camera Design Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging 2006 Physica Medica
    Vol. 21, pp. 94-98  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zhang2006,
      author = {J. Zhang and G. Chinn and A. M. K. Foudray and F. Habte and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Evaluation of a Dual-Head PET Camera Design Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging},
      journal = {Physica Medica},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {94-98}
    }
    					
    Zhang, J.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Olcott, P.D. & Levin, C.S. Performance Characterization of a Novel Thin Position-Sensitive Avalanche Photodiode for High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography 2007 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
    Vol. 54, pp. 415-421  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zhang2007b,
      author = {J. Zhang and A. M. K. Foudray and P. D. Olcott and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Performance Characterization of a Novel Thin Position-Sensitive Avalanche Photodiode for High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {54},
      number = {3},
      pages = {415-421}
    }
    					
    Zhang, J.; Olcott, P.D.; Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.K. & Levin, C.S. Study of the Performance of a Novel 1 mm Resolution Dual-Panel PET Camera Design Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging Using Monte Carlo Simulation 2007 Medical Physics
    Vol. 34, pp. 689-702  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zhang2007,
      author = {J. Zhang and P. D. Olcott and G. Chinn and A. M. K. Foudray and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Study of the Performance of a Novel 1 mm Resolution Dual-Panel PET Camera Design Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging Using Monte Carlo Simulation},
      journal = {Medical Physics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {34},
      number = {2},
      pages = {689-702}
    }
    					
    Zhang, J.; Olcott, P.D.; Foudray, A.M.K.; Chinn, G. & Levin, C.S. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Dual-Plate PET Camera Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging 2005 2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III, pp. 1667-1671  
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Zhang2005,
      author = {J. Zhang and P. D. Olcott and A. M. K. Foudray and G. Chinn and C. S. Levin},
      title = {Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Dual-Plate PET Camera Dedicated to Breast Cancer Imaging},
      booktitle = {2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record, III},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {1667-1671}
    }
    					

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